Virtuální průvodce sbírkou starých map, které byly vystaveny na výstavě, která se konala ve Vlastivědném muzeu v Olomouci 20. 2.–27. 4. 2014
Along with the coupled terrestrial globe, the Star Globe is one of the most valuable exhibits of the Regional Museum in Olomouc. It was created at the end of the 17th century by Vinzenco Coronelli (1650–1718), a famous Venetian cartographer and the founder of the oldest geographic company, who also created his works for French King Louis XIV.
The identification of the globe is easier due to the heraldic and textual part in the cartouches on the holder and on the globe itself. The richly carved holder.
Holder with trunks from which <b>three golden consoles grow </b>– female half-figures carrying the equator ring holding the globe – is very valuable.
Typical motifs of the time are presented in the drawings, showing traditional mythic figures and animals that represent individual constellations described directly on the coat of the globe in several languages.
The old astronomical maps PLANISFERO DEL GLOBO CELESTE represent the hemispheres of the starry sky from 1687. They come from the workshop of Italian master <b>Francesco Brunaccio</b> (1640–1703), who represents 64 of the then-known constellations. They are depicted allegorically as human beings (Aquarius, Gemini, Cassiopeia, Andromeda), animals (Lion, Taurus, Bear, Scorpio, Bull, Dove) and mythical animals (Phoenix, Paegasus, Centaur), but also as things (Scales, Sailing Ship). On the top part under the cartouche in the shape of a ribbon is the Sun; below, beneath the starry sky, the author depicted the Earth. Under it, there is a legend for individual planets with marks. Both hemispheres are connected together in the constellation of Sagittarius. The map depicts the planets Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus and Mercury. The Moon is also included. The bottom ribbon includes the writings Arctica and Antarctica related to the poles in the middle of the hemispheres. The map is accompanied by an Italian text on the bottom part of the sheet. The author clarifies that he studied Bayer’s work “Uranometria” from 1603 and explains the scientific content and technical execution of the map. He also comments on significant astronomical discoveries of the previous decades. The map was engraved by V. Mariotti and printed in Rome by G. de Rossi.
At the top part under the cartouche in the shape of a ribbon there is <b>the Sun</b>.
Below, beneath the starry sky, the author depicted <b>the Earth</b>. Under it, there is the legend to individual planets with signs.
Both hemispheres are connected together into the constellation of <b>Sagittarius</b>.
The atlas ASTRONOMICUM CEASAREUM is the work of<b> Petr Apian </b>(1495–1552), also known by the Latin name Petrus Apianaus, a German astronomer and cartographer. The book has a leather binding, the edges are golden, and it has 22 pages with moving discs. It includes often complex, manually coloured, rotating graphic circles for reading and recording the movements of celestial bodies (the planets, the Moon and the Sun), for the calculation of astronomical (but also astrological) indicators and the calculation of celestial width and length of planets.
The atlas includes a number of distinctive and breakthrough scientific discoveries in the area of astronomy by Apian, who made them based on his observations and mathematical calculations. He described five comets, including the best-known one (later called Halley), and proved that the tail of the comet is always in the direction from the Sun.
The Atlas maps depict a starry sky, where the individual constellations are graphically presented.
Terrestrial Globe is one of the largest and most significant exhibits of the Regional Museum in Olomouc. Originally, it was placed in the Olomouc Jesuit University Library. The main author and inspirer of the Baroque globe in 1695–1697 was professor of theology <b>Joannes Grünsklee</b> (1655–1710) from Olomouc. According to his design, the decorations were executed by the top artist Ferdinand Naboth.
The globe coating consists of wooden segments cut from bass wood and by an axis it rests in an iron meridian resting on an iron holder.
The globe marks all of the continents known at the time. Their descriptions are located in smaller drape-ries framed by a few cartouches.
In the area of seas, oceans and unknown countries, <b>argosies and sea monsters </b>are depicted according to custom.
Along with the coupled globe of the starry sky, the Terrestrial Globe is one of the most valuable exhibits of the Regional Museum in Olomouc. It was created in the 17th century by <b>Vinzenco Coronelli </b>(1650–1718), a famous Venetian cartographer and the founder of the oldest geographic company, who also created his works for French King Louis XIV.
Holder and scapes carrying the globe have the same properties as <b>the Globe of the starry sky</b>.
The coat of the globe includes typical motifs of the time. In the oceans and unknown parts of the world, there are human figures hunting or fishing, or sea animals.
Also writings and routes of significant naval ways that are all dated before <b>1690</b> are interesting.
The map by the Spanish monk <b>St. Beatus from Liebana</b> (also known as Beatus Liebanensis), S. BEATI LIEBANENSIS MAPPAM MUNDI, was created in 776 and it is one of the most significant cartographic works of the European Middle Ages. It served as an attachment to his work called “Commentaria In Apocalypsin” (Comments on Apocalypse). The map was created in compliance with Christian supernaturalism.
Although the original manuscript was lost, a few copies that are close to the original, survived. The displayed exhibit is the copy of a copy of the Beatus map from the mid-11th century.
<b>Asia</b> is located in the top half-circle.
<b>Africa</b> is located in the right bottom quadrant.
<b>Europe</b> is located in the left bottom quadrant.
As you can tell from the distribution of the continents, the map is oriented to <b>the east</b>.
In compliance with the biblical dogma, there is Eden and the first people,<b> Adam and Eve</b>, who sins for the first time when she takes fruit from the tree of knowledge.
The map of the world MAPPE-MONDE is the work of <b>Nicolas Sanson d´Abbeville</b> (1600–1667), a French cartographer of Flemish origin and the founder of the French cartography, who was a royal cartographer and a teacher of geography of the kings-to-be Louis XIII and Louis XIV.
The map comes from the atlas INTRODUCTION A LA GEOGRAPHIE, DÙ FONT LA GEOGRAPHIE ASTRONOMIQUE, which was published by Alexis Hubert Jaillot in the bookstore of Covens and Mortier in Amsterdam in 1696. Since 1670 Jaillot was a manager of the Sanson’s business,.
The map depicts the Earth by two hemispheres (planiglobes). The equator is depicted as a section of a line and the mapping of individual continents almost corresponds to modern knowledge.
By the end of the 17th century, the only<b> unexplored areas </b>were the northern parts of <b>the Pacific Ocean, Arctica, southeast Australia and Antarctica</b>.
The Californian peninsula is depicted as <b>an island</b>.
From New Zealand and Tasmania, only a part of the coast is depicted, and Antarctica is marked as Terre Australe et Innconue (Unknown Southern Land) with only an approximate scope.
While the coast lines more or less correspond to reality, the inland is in many places quite distorted. This is most obvious in the depiction of<b> the river network in the Sahara and Equatorial Africa</b>.
The map of hemispheres NOVA TOTITUS TERRARUM ORBIS GEOGRAPHICA AC HYDROGRAPHICA TABULA is considered one of the most famous and the most beautiful of map works. It was created by a Flemish cartographer and engraver <b>Hendricus Hondius</b> (1573–1650) in 1630 and published a year later in ATLANTIS MAIORIS APPENDIX in Amsterdam.
In the four corners of the map sheet, the author paid homage to the significant figures of the history of mankind – Roman Emperor <b>Gaius Julius Ceasar</b>.
To each of them he assigned one of the main elements (fire, air, water, earth), which he completed with characters from the Greek mythology.
The most famous ancient geographer<b> Claudius Ptolemaeus</b>.
The father of modern Dutch cartography<b> Gerhard Mercator</b>.
Creator of maps <b>Jodocus Hondius</b>.
In the middle of the map, in the bottom, there is a very apposite depiction of the view of the world in that time – the picture personifying known continents led by Lady Europe with girls that represent America, Asia and Africa bowing to her.
For instance,<b> Australia</b>, discovered by Dutch sailors shortly before the map was published,<b> is connected into one whole with Antarctica</b>.
<b>South-east Asia</b> is incomplete.
<b>Caspian Sea</b> is placed incorrectly and designed in Latin as the Sea of Peace.
The area of the current <b>Californian peninsula</b> is depicted as <b>an island</b>.
If we look closely enough, we can discover Prague in the heart of Europe placed on the Moldau River.
The map AMERICA was first published in 1606 in the <b>Mercator-Hondius atlas</b>, and there were many subsequent publications. It was created in stereographic projection, which is why the meridians are curved toward the poles. The map depicts North and South America with oceans. North America is too extended to the west.
The map is decorated with nine boats and sailing boats. The composition is conveniently completed with sea fish, monsters and various comments.
The author of the map is a Dutch cartographer Jodocus Hondius (1563–1612), who acquired the printing plates from the estate of G. Mercator. Hondius newly published Mercator’s “Atlas of the World” and completed it with new sheets. Together with his sons, younger Jodocus and older Henricus, and brother-in-law, Jan Janszonius, they were one of the most significant representatives of the Dutch cartographic school. Thanks to his work, in the 17th century Amsterdam became the centre of European cartography.
Hondius was one of the first cartographers who depicted in his works the discoveries of Sir Francis Drake. He sailed around the world between 1577 and 1580 in the service of British Queen Elizabeth I. This is proved by the geographical name of the territory <b>Nova Albion </b>on the west coast, which comes from him.
The bottom left corner includes a decorative note depicting, from the right to the left, Brazilian Indian women during preparation of a traditional drink and Indians drinking the drink and setting out on a hunt with famous blowguns.
Greenland <b>Eskimo</b> angling in a kayak.
The Map L’AFRIQUE, by the famous French cartographer <b>Nicolas Sanson d´Abeville</b>, describes Africa and its administrative division into realms and kingdoms. It also depicts the statistics of nationalities.
The variant name in the heading of the map includes places and countries it describes – Egypt, Sahara, Niger, Guinea, Nubia, Ethiopia, Zanzibar, Congo, Monomotapa, Cafreria, Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands and Madagascar. Individual territories are divided by coloured borders. On the left side, the scale of the map is placed.
Nicolas Sanson d´Abeville (1600–1667), the founder of the French scientific cartographic school, started publishing maps in 1627. He published almost 150 maps, some of which are very valuable, even though they are not completely cartographically accurate. He put them together based on a small number of astronomically ascertained location of places. Content-wise, the maps correspond to the knowledge of the world at the time. This map was published in 1674 in Paris in the publishing house of Hubert Jaillot. In 1692, Jaillot made a collection of maps by Sanson called ATLAS NOUVELLE.
N. Sanson was a follower of the famous Dutch cartographer G. Mercator, but he also remained strongly influenced by the ancient founder of cartography, K. Ptolemaeus. Equidistant mapping is connected to Sanson; it was named after him. The sons and grandsons of Sanson continued to publish maps, so French cartography was, for an entire century, dominated by the Sanson dynasty.
The cartouche is richly decorated with<b> African animals</b> – lions, ostriches and crocodiles.
On the left side<b> the scales of the map</b> are located.
The map of the legendary Land of Priest John, JOBI LUDOLFI HABESSINIA SEU ABASSIA, PRESBYTERI JOHANNIS REGIO, was first published in Amsterdam in 1683 by a German historian and expert on Ethiopia, <b>Ludolf Job </b>(1624–1704). The copperplate, printing and publishing of the map was provided by Gerard Valk and Peter Schenk.
The work represents one of the oldest and relatively most accurate depictions of Abyssinia, which is currently Ethiopia. The description of geographic names is in Latin; altimetry is depicted in <b>a hill-shading method</b>.
In the top left corner, there is <b>a royal coat of arms</b> with a lion with a Byzantine double-arm cross.
On the bottom at the right, <b>a legend</b> describing settlements and monasteries in the Christian kingdom is located.
The map is decorated with engravings of elephants, lions and camels. The title <b>cartouche</b> is animated with iguanas and flamingos.
The Great French Revolution disrupted society and allowed the accession of Napoleon, who as a dictator made France the most powerful of European powers. The Napoleonic wars lasted 16 years and ended with the definite <b>defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo on June 18, 1815</b>. The battle took place to the south of Brussels at a pub La belle Alliance, where Napoleon faced Wellington supported by elector Blücher. Subsequently, based on the proposal of Czar Alexander, Russia, Austria and Prussia created a holy alliance in which the leaders undertook to manage their countries pursuant to Christian principles. Napoleon was, as a prisoner of war, transported to the Island of St. Helena, where he died in 1821.
The plan PLAN DER GLORREICHEN SCHLACHT BEI LA BELLE ALLIANCE AM 18TEN JUNI 1815 is not dated but it is thought to have been created not long after the battle, roughly in 1820, and published in Leipzig. Both the legend and the plan describe the dissolution of the army of Englishmen under the leadership of the Duke of Wellington and the subsequent attack by Elector Blücher, who was defeated by Napoleon two days ago at Ligna. However, he took the remaining forces and, with a principal attack, he managed to change the course of the battle. On the battlefield, orientation points are marked, for instance the Mountain of St. John, in the north the road to Brussels, in the south, the road from Genappe and the restaurant La Belle Alliance on this road.
CHOROGRAPHIA TRANSYLVANIAE represents the first map of Transylvania (Romania) published in 1532 in Basel by the Transylvanian cartographer and humanist <b>Johannes Honter</b> (1498–1549), who created it probably based on the Lazar map of Hungary from 1513.
In the title, J. Honter used the German name Sybembürgen. The original was carved by the author into a wooden plate. The only original print of the map that was preserved is placed in the Old Prints Department of the Hungarian National Library in Budapest. A. Ortellus re-engraved the map in copper and created a new work of art. The displayed facsimiles come from the periodical MITTHEILUNGEN DER K. K. GEOGRAPHISCHEN GESELLSCHAFT IN WIEN, where it was published in 1898.
In the top corners, the author placed town emblems, the right one of which refers to Honter’s native settlement in Romanian Brasov.
In the top parts, the author placed town emblems, the right of which refers to Honter’s native settlement in Romanian <b>Brasov</b>.
ATLAS MAIOR is considered one of the most beautiful and most valuable Baroque books in world history. The main share in its creation goes to a cartographer from Amsterdam,<b> Joan Blaeu</b> (1596–1673). It was first published in Latin in 1662 in Amsterdam. The original 11 individual volumes included an unbelievable 594 maps of Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Antarctica (over time, they were published in other languages). The later print was published in 1665, and the facsimile of the publication from 2005 (TASCHEN publisher) divided into 11 chapters comes from this edition.
The maps are very accurate for the time, and also artistically and graphically well done. Sometimes, they include the vedutas of towns, coats of arms, or figures of men in traditional clothes. Various illustrations of ships, argosies, whales, breath-taking mermaids or images of old Greek mythical characters catch one’s eye. The atlas is not only cartographic but also an artistic and historical document showing detailed information about the time from botany, zoology, ethnology and mythology.
<b>Vedutas of Amsterdam and Prague</b>.
Samples of former <b>fashion</b> illustrations at the edge of the map.
The nautical (portolan) map ITALIÆ ORÆ of the famous Dutch navigator <b>William Barents</b> (1550–1597) describes the Ligura coast of Italy with all ports, islands, shallows and depths. Over the compass rose, there is the port of Genova (Genua) and, to the east, the town of Pisa. In the south, part of Corsica is depicted, and in the east, the Elba Island.
The manually coloured copperplate was created at the end of the 16th century. The frame and the rose of the map are coloured in light blue. The seas include the depictions of sailing ships but also fish and sea monsters. The map is oriented to the northeast.
W. Barents became famous in particular due to his geographical discoveries in Arctica, which was however fatal for him. He did not survive overwintering of the campaign not far from the New Land in 1597. In memory of him, the Barents Sea, Barents Island and the town of Barentsburg at Spitsbergen were named after him.
<b>The cartouche</b> is filled by the the name in Latin and Dutch.
<b>The ports</b> are marked with anchors.
The bottom left corner includes <b>a scale</b> in Italian and Spanish miles.
For nautical maps, the depiction of the main geographical directions,<b> a directional rose</b> with 16 main rays and other roses with greater number of rays are necessary for naval travels. These maps usually do not have a geographical network. Their production was located around the Mediterranean area in Italy and Catalonia.
A new and accurate map of Hungary, NOVA ET ACCURATA HUNGARIAE CUM ADIACENTIB. REGN. ET PRINCIPATIBUS TABULA, with adjacent kingdoms and princedoms, was created in the workshop of renowned German cartographer <b>Georg Matthäus Seutter </b>(1687–1757). The map is not dated, but we know that it was printed in the first half of the 18th century from copperplate.
The map is manually coloured.
The map is decorated with two beautiful decoration notes. The scene at the bottom has an obvious political subtext. It depicts the then Habsburg ruler, Emperor Charles IV, standing on the imperial eagle, with the leaders of Dalmatia, Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia and Slavonia paying homage to him. The map is the expression of Habsburg ruling ambitions in the area of the Balkan Peninsula.
Despite the relatively small scale, the map is very detailed. For instance, in the territory of Moravia, depicted in the left top part, not only big towns such as<b> Brno</b> (Brinn) and <b> Olomouc</b> (Olmütz) are displayed, but also smaller municipalities, e.g. <b> Kurovice</b> (Kurowitz), <b> Slušovice</b> (Slussowitz) and <b> Vizovice</b> (Wizzowitz).
There is an interesting, incorrect depiction of the north-east part of <b>the Danube River</b> between the towns of Visegrád and Vukovar in the northwest-southeast direction.
GERMANIÆ VETERIS map was published in the Latin version of <b>Blaeu’s atlas</b> in Amsterdam in 1662. The depicted area represents the area of the Roman province of Germania. The information on the existence of objects in the area probably came from the Roman historians Pliny the Elder (AD 23–AD 79) and Tacitus (AD 55–AD 120?) who are mentioned at the top edge of the map. However, the location of the objects was adjusted to correspond with the knowledge on topography of Middle Europe in the mid-17th century. The information stated in the map itself may follow that although the Romans never managed to control Germania completely, they had quite an extensive knowledge of it that may have come from occasional military attacks and from merchants who travelled over the borders of the Roman Empire.
Apart from planimetrics, the map shows territories inhabited by some tribes. In the territory of Bohemia, <b>Baemi</b> (Boii).
In Moravia <b>the Marcomanni</b> (Marcomanni) were located.
Because it was created in the 17th century, the map includes historical information so it can be called an old thematically historic map.
The map depicts the stream of the Northern Dvina River from the European part of Russia to the northeast. That is why the map is oriented to the west. The heading is located in a cartouche and the other publisher cartouche is empty; however, it is known that the copperplate comes from the workshop of the Dutch cartographer <b>J. Blaeu</b> (1595–1673).
The river is divided into three parts. It springs in the left bottom part and mouths in the right top part.
The map is decorated on the right part by artistic decorative notes depicting three reindeers and two does.
The Northern Dvina River (total length of the stream is 744 km) flows from the spring of the Suchona River before the town of Vologda, which is one of the oldest settlements in Russia, and was mentioned in 1147.
The firth is located near <b>the Archangelsk </b>port (on the map as S. M. Archangel) and <b>Severodvinsk </b>(as S. Nicolas). The river leads to the Dvina Bay to the White Sea.
Names of the settlements and lakes are located in the direction of sailing at the bottom from the left to the right and at the top from the right to the left. The whole river is navigable, which was probably the reason for its <b>detailed mapping</b>. Dvine represented an important commercial and transport road. Wood, crops, flax, iron and also fish were transported by it.
The Atlas of the Great Elector, or DER ATLAS DES GROSSEN KURFÜRSTEN (also known as BERLINER RIESENATLAS), represents a Baroque work of distinctive cultural, scientific, artistic and historical value. It is remarkable not only for its size. It was created in 1661 in Amsterdam based on an incentive by Prince Moritz Nassau and was given to the elector Friedrich Wilhelm I von Brandenburg, known under the cognomen “Great Elector”. <b>Joan Blaeu</b> (1596–1673), a Dutch cartographer and publisher, significantly participated in the creation of the atlas.
The work has giant dimensions in the original of 175×115 cm (open double sheet 170×220 cm), weighs unbelievable 125 kgs and is located in the National Library in Berlin.
Maps have great artistic value, for their decorating elements.
<b>Portraits of princes</b>.
Vedutas showing major cities.
<b>Veduta of Prague</b>.
GROSSER ATLAS ÜBER DIE GANZE WELT was first published by the German cartographer <b>Johann Baptist Homann</b> (1664–1724) in his publishing house in 1716. It includes a total of 126 maps depicting hemispheres, continents and individual areas of Europe (with preference given to German-speaking countries). During the creation of the maps, Homann successfully cooperated with top Hamburg cartographer Johannes Hübner (1668–1731). This significant scholar is considered the author of a breakthrough cartographic idea that the territory of one leader or one country should be depicted in the same colour. Homann applied this new principle to his work on the atlas that went on to become a jewel in the history of (not only) German cartography.
At the top right corner there is a cartouche with the name of the map. The cartouche is decorated with <b>emblems of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia</b>.
In the bottom right corner <b>the scales</b> are located.
In 1692, a monumental two-volume ATLAS NOUVEAU with the complete production of the famous <b>Nicolas Sansone d´Abbeville </b>(1600–1667) was first published in Paris. Two his heirs participated at the publication of this remarkable work with a significant support of a Paris publisher and cartographer Herbert Jaillot (1632–1712) and cartographer Pieter Mortier (1661–1711). Nicolas Sanson was influenced, during the creation of maps, by the “perfect” Dutch cartography, but unlike it, he did not use too many fantastic elements and illustrated decorations. All his precise, accurate and careful scientific work was in the rationalistic style that influenced (not only) processing of maps and atlases in the future.
The name of the map is located in <b>an exotically decorated cartouche</b>.
In the bottom left corner are <b>scales</b>.
The north of the map is quite inaccurate. The proof is <b>California</b>, which is displayed as <b>an island</b>.
Portolánové mapy představují fenomén středověké i novověké kartografie a jsou její důležitou vývojovou složkou. Olomoucký exemplář Portolánového atlasu od <b>Jaume Olivese</b> patří k pozdější produkci portolánových map tvořených primárně již nikoli pouze k přímé navigaci, nýbrž rovněž jako cenný sběratelský artefakt.
Rukopisný atlas tvoří sedm pergamenových listů s úvodní větrnou růžicí, za níž následuje šest mapových listů, které zachycují tradiční plavební oblast Středozemního a Černého moře, doplněnou o část Atlantiku.
The work of Jaume Olives is the product of a famous family clan. From 1530s, a few generations of the clan created maps. The atlas was created in 1563 in <b>Mallorca </b>and in Naples. It is very valuable because it was indirectly the prototype for the next generations of the big and unusually active family whose members lived in the 16th and 17th centuries in Baleary Islands, Italy, Spain and France.
<b>The eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea</b> and the western part of the Black Sea (the top of the map is oriented to the East).
The territory of <b>England and Spain</b> (oriented to the East again).
<b>The Atlatic Ocean </b>(oriented to the East again).
The necessity to be able to orient oneself in a landscape and to record that landscape was felt by humans as far back as prehistoric times, before letters were created. This led to the creation of the first “maps” on mammoth tusks, flat bones, engravings in stone and other materials.
In 1962, a mammoth tusk 36.5 cm long with the diameter 2 to 8 cm with a geometrical engraving that was created <b>approximately 25,000 years ago</b> was discovered in Pavlov in south Moravia. Probably, this is a hunting map, with the landscape reduced to abstract motifs. The snake-like curve engraved in the bottom part on the left may correspond to <b>the meanderings of the Dyje (Thaya) river</b>, into which the Klentnický brook flows. On the bottom in the right, the clay slopes damaged by erosion that disappeared in the 20th century due to excavations for a brick kiln can be depicted.
The hatching might include other information concerning the variability and character of the terrain. In the foothills, where the river meets the clay steep slopes, a camp of the mammoth hunters could have been located, depicted by a double circle. The combination of orthogonal and side view probably expressed the best the character of the surrounding landscape while viewed from and high site of ancient inhabitants of Moravia.
According to this hypothesis by Bohuslav Klíma that is still accepted, this is the oldest preserved “orientation map” in the world, a work of art of an area record of a landscape by the hand of an ancient predecessor. The mammoth tusk with a “map” is one of the primacies held by the Dolní Věstonice-Pavlov discovery site. The original is stored in the Archaeological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in Brno.
The first independent map of Moravia was created in 1569 thanks to the doctor, mathematician and university professor<b> Pavel Fabricius </b>(1519–1589) under the name MARCHIONATUS MORAVIAE. DAS MARGGRAFFTUMB MÄHRERN dedicated it to the Moravian nobility. One of the main reasons it was created was the need to depict the territory for military purposes because Moravia was constantly endangered by Turks. The mapping of the Moravian margravedom was created, and compared to the adjacent countries, the latest – the first map of Bohemia by Mikuláš Klaudyán was published as early as 1518, along with the first map of Silesia by Martin Helwig in 1561.
The displayed Fabricius map of Moravia was printed from a copperplate by the famous Flemish cartographer Abraham Ortelius (1527–1598) in 1573 and became part of his atlas.
<b>The name of the map</b> is stated in the Renaissance round label at the top left.
On the right,<b> the legend</b> is placed.
The bottom right corner includes <b>the scale of the map</b> with Renaissance motifs, with a compass and the emblem of <b>the Moravian Margravedom</b>.
When Pavel Fabricius was putting his work together, he travelled a lot around Moravia and Lower Austria, but he did not manage to go everywhere. That is why some places are displayed quite inaccurately or they are missing completely – for instance, the border between Moravia and Silesia, Hungary or the river Moravia, which is depicted as going from Uherské Hradiště directly to the south, thus moving its right affluents distinctively to the east.
In 1569, the Moravian aristocracy financed the creation of the first independent map of Moravia by Pavel Fabricius. Although critics immediately discovered a number of inaccuracies, Dutch cartographic workshops used it for their atlases as the only source for the creation of map sheets.
Content-wise, the closest to the original by Fabricius is the publication by <b>Gerard de Jode</b> (1541–1599) MARAVANIAE SEU MORAVIAE MARCHIONATUS, who, the same as Fabricius, depicts apart from Moravia also Austria to the north of the Danube and also includes a bilingual (Czech and Latin) legend for the signs for towns and villages. Also, many mistakes concerning the waters and altitudes and contorted topography were taken over from the original Fabricius map. De Jode map uses trapezoidal mapping and the filling is uneven – some places are almost empty, while others include a great number of signs.
The orientation of the map to the east, in Latin oriens, which was used in medieval O-T maps, is also interesting. Other maps in the G. De Jode atlas were oriented to the north (for instance, Bohemia) or with small deviations (for instance, Hungaria to the northeast). The territories were depicted in the atlas on double sheets, while Moravia is only on one sheet. The adjacent sheet depicts Silesia also oriented to the east. This depiction differed not only from the original sources (Moravia from P. Fabricius to the north, Silesia by M. Helwig to the south), but also from the connected map sheets of neighbouring territories, and became less easy to read. Nevertheless, the east orientation of Moravia was taken over in a newly adjusted map for the new publication of the atlas by the son Cornelius de Jode and had a new, bigger print plate made for a double sheet.
The first map of Morava by Pavel Fabricius was printed and distributed on an independent sheet in 1569, shortly before modern atlases were created. In the Netherlands, in 1570, Abraham Ortelius published a book called “The Theatre of the World”, which can be called the first modern world atlas. The name “atlas” for a book publication of maps was first used in 1585, and it comes from the cartographic workshop of Gerard Mercator.
According to the Fabricius work, Ortelius created in 1573 a map sheet for his “Theatre of the World”. In Antwerps, Gerard de Jode and his colleague Daniel Cellarius tried to publish their own atlas called “The Mirror of the World”. Individual maps on independent sheets were sold as early as 1567. It is not certain whether Jode planned to publish them in an atlas or whether he borrowed the idea from Ortelius. The publication was put together in 1573, but it was only published when the royal privilege awarded to Ortelius expired. It only appeared on sale in 1579 and cost half the amount the Ortelius atlas cost.
Although the next cartographers viewed both atlases as equal in quality, the de Jode family did not manage to compete with the great merchant Ortelius.
The map of Moravia, created by <b>Jan Amos Comenius</b>, was commercially very successful and was reproduced after more than 150 years from 13 printing plates. It was studied by generations of historians and cartographers, but the opinions concerning the year that it was created still vary. The dedication follows that Comenius worked on it during his “involuntary void” in exile, i.e. in 1621. However, he had been gathering material probably since 1614.
The oldest dated printed specimen from 1627 was known from literature, but the original was missing at the end of the 19th century. It was only found and bought by František Slaměník in 1912 for his Comenius Museum in Přerov, where it is stored up to nowand known as the “Přerov print” type KMM A1.1. In 1967, Milan V. Drápela discovered an unknown print of the map dated around 1664. When he compared it with the specimen from 1627, he ascertained that in this version, the map field mapping is different and, in impress, he found traces from which older dating –<b> year 1624</b> – can be reconstructed.
Although this information was not confirmed by the discovery of the specimen from 1624, the theory about the existence of two types of copperplates made by <b>A. Goose</b> for the Visher-Piscator Amsterdam workshop is generally accepted. The older one from 1624 without the decorative volute frame was corrected and completed by Comenius. Goos engraved it again in 1627, and in 1664 it was printed from the corrected plate again for the N.Visscher-Piscator atlas.
<b>Jan Amos Comenius</b> (1592–1670) put together the map MORAVIAE NOVA ET POST OMNES PRIORES ACCURATISIMA DELINEATIO based on a years worth of his own findings with the objective to correct the inaccuracies of the older Fabricius map. The work then became, for the next 100 years, the most accurate map of Moravia.
This type of Comenius map, first published in 1627, includes a characteristic element – <b>a strip of vedutas</b> of four Moravian towns – <b>Polná, Olomouc, Brno and Znojmo</b>.
<b>The Renaissance label</b> in the top left includes a dedication to Ladislav Velen from Žerotín, and information about the engraver are beneath it.
In the bottom left corner<b> the scales</b> are located.
On the right, there is <b>a legend </b>surrounded by, among other things,<b> glass products and grapes with the emblem of Moravia</b>. Beneath the label, there is information about the publisher.
Comenius map of Moravia has a unique position in the history of Moravian ethnography. As the first one in our history, it states two ethnic areas in Moravia – Haná and Zálesí. Comenius marks the area between Prostějov, Vyškov and Kojetín as “NA HANÉ” (in later versions of Comenius map stated as “AHANÉ”, “AHANE”, or not stated at all). The area called “ZÁLESÝ” (in later versions as “SÁLESÝ”, “ZALESY” or completely missing) is located between Slavičín, Valšské Klobouky and Horní Lídeč.
Supposedly, Comenius included both the ethnic regions in the map by accident. However, his primacy in the cartographic depiction of Moravian ethnographical regions is unchallengeable.
The map of Moravia has a special place among the works of Jan Amos Comenius because it is his only cartographic work. It was published predominantly abroad. In the Czech lands, it only served as a template for one derivation MORAVIAE OLIM REGNUM NUNC MARCHIONATUS created by Samuel Dvořák, engraver, for the historical and geographical book of T. Pěšina from Čechorod called MARS MORAVICUS in 1677 <b>without stating the author</b>, probably due to anti-Reformation measures. From the same publication, we know about the existence of another work by Comenius called “About the Antiques of Moravia”, which is now lost. The map was probably originally part of this work. In the Czech lands, it was published after the death of the author.
Artistic decorations are completely exceptional. Most derivations of the Comenius map depict attributes of the wealth of the land or allegoric scenes. The version from 1677 refers to the famous history of the land. <b>The emblem of Moravia is carried by two warriors in armour </b>– Markoman and Moravian. In Moravia, Comenius suffered through the war years after the battle at Bílá hora, so he finished the map more quickly trying to help the rebelling Moravians. He listed Ladislav Velen from Žerotín, Moravian hetman during the rebellion and the leader of the revolt, as the author.
Although the map was created in the Czech lands, there are mountains in<b> the flat Silesia</b>. This mistake was created during the first rectification of the original work by Comenius from 1624–1627 in the Amsterdam workshop of J. Hondius. By transferring the cartouche with the title of the map from the right to the left corner, a free area was created, and this area was filled with mountains by an unknown engraver. This mistake was taken over also by other publishers.
By his map of Morava, Jan Amos Comenius meant to correct the mistakes of the preceding work created by Pavel Fabricius in 1569. Although Comenius did not execute systematic geodesic measuring in terrain, the map is quite accurate. He also corrected contorted terminology. By a twist of fate, shortly after it was published, a work assigned to Comenius MORAVIA MARCHIONATUS was created. The title of the falsification names him; however, this is one of the worst derivations of the Fabricius map Comenius wanted to replace. A Dutch cartographic workshop that had its “golden age” in the first half of the 17th century immediately adopted the original work by Comenius as a template for the creation of atlases. The name Comenius was a guarantee of quality and a brand that guaranteed sales.
<b>Wine decorations</b> around the legend and the scale.
The map of Moravia called MORAVIA comes from the Mercator-Hondius atlas. It was published in Amsterdam by the Dutch cartographer<b> Henricus Hondius</b> (1573–1650) in 1627. The copperplate, which was acquired by Gerhard Mercator in 1585, is richly manually coloured in the Moravian region and around the borders.
The mountains are expressed by <b>a hill method</b> and the vegetation by <b>a tree method</b>.
The top right corner includes a decorative <b>scale in miles</b>. The map does not include the network of geographic meridians and parallels, but it includes a framework divided after 10 miles.
The name <b>cartouche</b> is decorated with hardware and in the top part by blossoming grass.
<b>The settlements are expressed through castle symbols coloured in red</b>. The Morava River, coloured in blue, is very distinctive, and depicted from its spring with all affluents. Geographical names are in German.
The bottom right corner includes important information on <b>the printing privilege</b>, cum privilegio, which allowed the printing and exclusive sales of the work. The ruler only awarded this privilege to selected publishers. They were meant to protect publishing rights.
German cartographer and publisher <b>Tobiáš Konrád Lotter </b>(1717–1777) worked at first as an engraver in the workshop of Matyáš Suetter in Bavarian Augsburg. In 1740–1744 he created, along with his father-in-law M. Seutter, his masterpiece, ATLAS MINOR, with 80 different mappings of the globe, continents and individual countries.
Lotter’s well-arranged map of Moravia, fully called MAPPA GEOGRAPHICA SPECIALIS MARCHIONATUS MORAVIAE IN SEX CIRCULUS DIVISAE, is a derivation of the famous map TABULA GENERALIT MARCHIONATUS MORAVIA from 1716 by the cartographer and topographer Johann Christoph Müller. Unlike Müller’s map, Lotter’s map is coloured and individual counties have different colours.
The main decorative note in <b>the Rococo cartouche </b>with the full title of the map is located in the top left corner of the map. It is surrounded by three characters: a guarding soldier protecting the country against enemies, a child kneeling in front of him and a peasant as a symbol of the fertility and wealth of the Moravian country.
<b>The map scale</b> is located in the top right corner.
Vedutas of two historically most important towns of Moravia – Brno and Olomouc – are included in the bottom corners.
Over the Olomouc veduta, <b>a direction indicator</b> is located.
The map depicts the capitals, roads and rivers; mountains are depicted by <b>a hill method</b> with shading from the east. However, the legend is missing.
The oldest map of Hanakia or Haná (MAPPA GEOGRAPHICA SPECIALIS TERRE PROMISSAE VULGO SACRAE HANAE CUM ADIACEN TIBUS REGIONIBUS), was drawn at the beginning of the 19th century by<b> an unknown author</b>, most likely a teacher, from the Kojetín region. In the past, it was supposed that the author could be Jan Tomáš Kuznik (1716–1786) or his son-in-law, Antonín Přibyl.
The top left corner of the map includes <b>a decorative note</b> with the name of the map.
On the right, there is <b>a scale in Hanakian miles</b>.
The bottom corners include vedutas of the towns.
Brief <b>legend </b>of the types of seats.
The author applied hyperbole to the contents of the map. He stated the territory around the Haná River and Vyškov and the Kojetín region as<b> the centre of Haná </b>and marked it in Latin as the “Promised land called saint Haná”, where the true Hanakians live. He included ethnic sub-regions of Hanakia using the typical ways the locals supported themselves.
To the left from the name of the map, there is a Hanakian farmer in “tail” fur coat and military flail with a boy kneeling by him handing him a loaf of bread and a knife. To the left, there is a Hanakian woman bringing two masses of beer and “tvarůžky” cheese. The whole scene is watched from a tree trunk by two children bearing a coat of arms with flowers, one of them offering a doughnut to the Hanakian man. The whole decorative note depicts love for a homeland, the fertility of Hanakia, the richness of the folk costume and the determination of the inhabitants to protect their country.
MARCHIONATUS MORAVIAE CIRCULUS OLOMUCENSIS, a map of the Olomouc region, was first published in the 1730s. Its scale is approximately 1 : 168 000, and it is divided into two sheets – a northern and southern part. It was also part of<b> ATLAS COSMOGRAPHICUS MAIOR, SISTENS MUNDUM UNIVERSUM</b> from 1753 under No. 80. The main Baroque decorative cartouche includes a drawing that accurately characterises the Olomouc region – its fertility and wealth. The decorative cartouche is complete with an emblem of Morava carried by two angels. The borders of the territory are marked according to the new administrative division from 1735, when the Přerov region separated from the Olomouc region.
The map of the Olomouc region MARCHIONATUS MORAVIAE CIRCULUS OLOMUCENSIS QUEM MANDATO CAESAREO ACCURATÉ EMENSUS HAC MAPPA DELINEATUM EXHIBIT LO. CHR. <b>MÜLLER </b>S. C. M. CAP. ET INGEN, was published for the first time in the 1730s. Its scale is approximately 1 : 168 000, and it is divided into two sheets – a northern and southern part. It was also part of ATLAS COSMOGRAPHICUS MAIOR, SISTENS MUNDUM UNIVERSUM from 1753 under No. 79.
In the top left part of the map, there is <b>a decorative note</b> depicting a bear, bore and deer hunting.
At the top right corner there is<b> a legend</b> framed by a decorative cartouche. The main decorative cartouche with the map title is located on the southern map.
The main Baroque decorative<b> cartouche</b> includes a drawing that accurately characterises the Olomouc region – its fertility and wealth. The decorative cartouche is complete with an emblem of Morava carried by two angels.
The map was created based on military, administrative and economic requests by the Austrian Monarchy. That is why it <b>includes settlements</b>, waters, schematic altimetry, greenery, roads, farms, extinct settlements, mills, wineries, gold, silver and copper mines, iron mills, glassworks, post offices and other detailed information.
Historically the first map of Olomouc Diocese TABULA GENERALIS DIOECESIS OLOMUCENSIS IN LXII. DECENATUS DIVISAE, EXHIBENS OMNES EJUSDEM PAROCHIAS ET CAPELLANT LOCALES was created in 1762 by a canon from Olomouc Jan Václav Xaver Frey from Freyenfels (1706–1776) and it was published by a famous Nuremberg publishing house of Homann heirs in 1762.
It was based on a famous map of the Moravian margravedom by J. C. Müller made between 1708 and 1712 and published in 1716. Canon Frey from Freyenfels also created a handier version on four sheets called TABULA ALMAE DIOECESIS AMPLISSIMI EPISCOPATVS OLOMUCENSIS IN LXII. DECANATUS DIVISAE. Both maps were offered to the representatives of the Roman Catholic clergy for the price of five golden pieces as a “work of special diligence”.
The main <b>decorative note</b> includes the full edition title of the map with the personal emblem of the Olomouc bishop, Count Maximilián from Hamilton. Around it, the patrons of the Olomouc diocese, St. Václav, Sts. Cyril and Metoděj, St. Ludmila, St. Kordula, St. Prokop, St. Vojtěch, St. Vít, St. Ambrož, St. Jan Sarkander and St. Jan Nepomucký are depicted on a cloud.
At the bottom on the left, there is <b>a cartouche with the map scale and the legend</b>.
List of<b> all 62 deaneries of the Olomouc diocese</b>.
A detailed<b> topographical list</b>with a German description of how to use it is attached to the map.
Non porporis am que ommodic atenimentur sequi bea sunt The map ENTWURFF DER STADT OLMÜTZ describes the siege of Olomouc by the Prussian Army in 1758. It was created by a book illustrator and engraver <b>Ignác Saltzer</b>(1728–1806). The coloured map was published in Prague. It includes the plan of the fort of Olomouc in the scale 1 : 13 000 with the distribution of armies.
Under the title cartouche, in the bottom right corner, the author placed <b>a veduta of Olomouc</b> with the battlefield layout, including the artillery.
The bottom part of the plan describes the siege and losses.
The top right corner includes a <b>German legend</b> explaining the alphabetical marking of lines, places and parts of the army.
The vegetation is depicted using <b>the tree method</b>.
The author of the map MAPPA DES MARCH-FLUS refers to an unfeasible plan by Emperor Charles IV himself from the 14th century to build an Elbe–Oder–Danube floating channel. The ruler could not execute this plan because the system of lock chambers was discovered around 1500. In the 17th century, the Moravian Land Assembly wanted to make the dream come true with the support of the Emperor and the Czech king Ferdinand III. Unfortunately, due to the invasion of the Turks to Moravia, the work was put aside.
The oldest preserved project to adjust the Moravia river for floating comes from 1719. The author was Norbert Wenzl von Linck, the leader of the Uherské Hradiště fort. In the plan, he also included <b>a canal to the Oder turning from Bečva in Hustopeče</b>.
<b>The cartouche</b> is decorated with an imperial eagle with the initials of Charles VI decorating, with a laurel, the connection of the Danube and Oder. Allegorical characters of Danube and Oder include in the background masts and bows of ships sailing symbolically after expedient trade.
The author of the map PRINCIPATVS SILESIAE OPPAVIENSIS NOVISSIMA TABULA GEOGRAPHICA was an Austrian lieutenant of corps of engineers, <b>Jan Wolfgang Wieland</b> (†1736). The map includes richly decorated cartouches and a legend. The original of the map was published in 1736 as part of the Silesian atlas in Homann workshop in Nuremberg. The work of Wieland and his successor was so accurate that it later allowed for the quick creation of the Silesian cadastre in Prussia.
<b>The decorative note</b> around the title includes the emblem of the princedom. A group of Bacchus women in the corner refers to viniculture and beekeeping. Water currents and sheets of paper represent the Opava paper industry.
<b>The legend</b> in the top left corner of the map is decorated by two amoretti picking fruit. Princedom, the name and the emblem are described in Latin, while the settlements on the map are described in German. The reproduction of the map of the Opava Princedom comes from an edition of old maps called MONUMENTA CARTOGRAPHICA BOHEMIAE, MORAVIAE, SILESIAE ATQUE SLOVENIAE, prepared for publication in 1960 by Karel Kuchař.
The author of the first printed map of Bohemia was <b>Mikuláš Kaludyán</b> (†1521/1522), a doctor and letterpress printer from Mladá Boleslav. He based his work on older “pilgrim maps” by Erhard Etzlaub, which were to lead pilgrims to Rome in the jubilee year 1500. They were oriented to the south so that their users did not have to turn them and did not cast a shadow during orientation with sundials. Klaudyán’s map was published in 1518 in Nuremberg and became generally known thanks to S. Münster, who used it later in his Cosmography.
The top part of the map includes<b> a portrait of King Louis II Jagellonian with the coat of arms of countries he ruled, or countries he claimed as a ruler</b>.
The middle top part includes the depiction of “Justice” as a scales. Under it, its kinds are stated in a pyramid. On the sides, there are illustrations completed by verses from the Bible.
The next part includes the emblems of distinctive Czech houses and the members of the Regional and Chamber Courts (their list is at the edge of the map), or coats of arms of noble towns.
Directly above the map, there is<b> an allegorical drawing representing a stopped cart with people and two coachmen pulling the cart in opposite directions</b>. On the right, there is a depiction of an attack on a merchant cart. Both motifs are usually interpreted as the reflections of the religious schism of the country and poor conditions of the country.
<b>The map itself in the scale approximately 1 : 685 000</b>. It is written in Czech and oriented to the south.
Towns were divided into <b>Utraquist</b> (chalice) and<b> Catholic</b> (keys), <b>Royal</b> (crown) and <b>Noble</b> (horse head). Therefore, the map became one of the first to depict settlements according to the religion.
The copy of the oldest Klaudyan map of the Czech kingdom from 1516, called ZIKMUNDA Z PÚCHOVA MAPA KRÁ- LOVSTVÍ ČESKÉHO, comes from the Czech edition of the “Münster Cosmography” by the Slovakian humanist <b>Zikmud from Púchov</b>, which was printed by Jan Kosořský from Kosoř.
Map was created with <b>reverse geographical orientation, i.e. to the south</b> due to practical reasons, i.e. connecting a travel map with a sundial. The traveller would put the compass on the map, and if he was not to cast a shadow on the map, he had to orient the map to the south. Also, the writing was oriented in this direction.
The map marks distinguish <b>Catholic and Utraquist towns</b>. Otherwise, there are also royal, noble, towns, small towns, castles and forts depicted. The depicted and described Czech rivers are the Moldau, Elbe, Ohře, Jizera, Orlice and Sázava. The names are in Czech.
The Czech edition from 1554 did not include the German names added by Münster and the map was framed, on the side and in<b> the top part by 15 coats of arms of Czech lords</b>.
The map made from a copperplate by <b>Jan Condet</b> created in the Amsterdam workshop of Cóvens and Mortier in 1744, is usually, because of its likeness to the original, considered the best copy of the known map of Bohemia by Johann Christoph Müller. The scale is approximately 1 : 700 000.
The map depicts the administrative units of Bohemia – regions introduced in 1714. They include the Žatecký, Litoměřický, Boleslavský, Hradecký, Chrudimský, Čáslavský, Kouřimský, Rakovnický, Berounský, Bechyňský, Prachatický and Plzeňský regions. Also, the “outside” territory of Bohemia – Kladsko (in 1742 annexed to Prussia) and Chebsko regions are depicted. The peripheral parts depict neighbouring countries – the margravedom of Moravia, the grand duchy of Austria, Bavaria, Saxony, Upper Lusatia and the Silesian duchy.
The map is graphically very good. In the corners, there are allegorical decorative cartouches based on the works of a renowned Czech Baroque painter Václav Vavřinec Reiner.
The left top corner is decorated with a view of <b>Charles Bridge and Prague Castle</b>, with St. Václav entrusting the protection of Bohemia to the Virgin Mary.
The top right corner includes<b> a coat of arms with a two-tailed lion </b>(the emblem of the Czech kingdom) borne by angels in the middle of the allegory of Czech rivers. The name of the map LE ROYAUME DE BOHEME…(“Czech kingdom...”) located at the top right corner is decorated with hunting and agricultural motifs.
<b>The legend</b> in the left bottom corner includes the motif of masonry and mining and includes the division of settlements, baths, places where metals are extracted (gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, aluminium, etc.) vineyards, important points and other objects.
The map PRAGA from the beginning of the 18th century represents a copperplate print of the town plan of Prague, then the most famous, biggest and capital town of the Czech lands, where a university was also located.
The plan is <b>manually coloured</b>, distinguishing individual parts of the town by different colours. Around Prague, the fortification with forts and relevant <b>town emblems </b>is depicted.
The richly decorated<b> Baroque cartouche </b>with putti and symbols of archbishopric, education and trade also includes a bilingual title in Latin and German. The description of the plan is in German; however, the Moldau River going through the centre of the plan is described both in German (Moldau Fl.) and Latin (Mulda Fl.).
Over the river, <b>Charles Bridge</b> already richly decorated with Baroque statues is depicted.
The whole bottom part of the map is taken up by<b> the Prague veduta</b>. From the left, Hradčany, Prague Castle, the Little Quarter, Old Town, New Town and Vyšehrad are described. The veduta also includes the town emblems.
The plan of Prague SITUATIONS-PLAN VON PRAG by the Czech cartographer <b>Jan Tomáš Loth </b>was first published in 1845 in the Prague workshop of Fridrich Kretschmar. The manually coloured lithography depicts and distinguishes by colour the historical parts of town.
The plan was published for the second time in 1852 and for the third time in 1856. The work was dedicated to an Austrian archduke, Prince Štefan Franc Viktor.
<b>The title cartouche </b>is decorated with two Czech lions and royal crowns. The description is in German.
The plan is framed with <b>12 vedutas</b> with the most significant Prague monuments. In the top, on the left there are depictions of St. Nicolas Church, the Governor’s villa and the Little Quarter with Charles Bridge. At the top on the right, there are, at the head, introduced the St. Vitus Cathedral, Belvedere Villa and the Powder Tower. At the bottom, on the left, the author located the Czernin Palace, Archbishop Villa and Hradčany and on the right at the bottom, the Estates Theatre, the Chain Bridge and Žofín.
St. Nicholas Church
Charles Bridge and Prague Castle
St. Vitus Cathedral
At the sides of the map,<b> the town monuments with numbers</b> that can be found on the map are stated. The bottom part includes basic statistical data according to which Prague had 255 streets and 59 squares with 3,293 houses.
Around the town and Vyšehrad,<b> fortifications</b> are depicted. The terrain is marked with hatching.
On the left, at the bottom,<b> a small plan of Vyšehrad</b> is located.
The bottom right part includes <b>the round map depicting the surroundings of Prague</b>.